Marvin Zhang, Sergey Levine, Chelsea Finn.
MEMO: Test Time Robustness via Adaptation and Augmentation.
Under review at ICML 2022.

paper / code

While deep neural networks can attain good accuracy on in-distribution test points, many applications require robustness even in the face of unexpected perturbations in the input, changes in the domain, or other sources of distribution shift. We study the problem of test time robustification, i.e., using the test input to improve model robustness. Recent prior works have proposed methods for test time adaptation, however, they each introduce additional assumptions, such as access to multiple test points, that prevent widespread adoption. In this work, we aim to study and devise methods that make no assumptions about the model training process and are broadly applicable at test time. We propose a simple approach that can be used in any test setting where the model is probabilistic and adaptable: when presented with a test example, perform different data augmentations on the data point, and then adapt (all of) the model parameters by minimizing the entropy of the model's average, or marginal, output distribution across the augmentations. Intuitively, this objective encourages the model to make the same prediction across different augmentations, thus enforcing the invariances encoded in these augmentations, while also maintaining confidence in its predictions. In our experiments, we evaluate two baseline ResNet models, two robust ResNet-50 models, and a robust vision transformer model, and we demonstrate that this approach achieves accuracy gains of 1-8% over standard model evaluation and also generally outperforms prior augmentation and adaptation strategies. For the setting in which only one test point is available, we achieve state-of-the-art results on the ImageNet-C, ImageNet-R, and, among ResNet-50 models, ImageNet-A distribution shift benchmarks.


Marvin Zhang*, Henrik Marklund*, Nikita Dhawan*, Abhishek Gupta, Sergey Levine, Chelsea Finn.
Adaptive Risk Minimization: Learning to Adapt to Domain Shift.
NeurIPS 2021.

paper / website / code

A fundamental assumption of most machine learning algorithms is that the training and test data are drawn from the same underlying distribution. However, this assumption is violated in almost all practical applications: machine learning systems are regularly tested under distribution shift, due to changing temporal correlations, atypical end users, or other factors. In this work, we consider the problem setting of domain generalization, where the training data are structured into domains and there may be multiple test time shifts, corresponding to new domains or domain distributions. Most prior methods aim to learn a single robust model or invariant feature space that performs well on all domains. In contrast, we aim to learn models that adapt at test time to domain shift using unlabeled test points. Our primary contribution is to introduce the framework of adaptive risk minimization (ARM), in which models are directly optimized for effective adaptation to shift by learning to adapt on the training domains. Compared to prior methods for robustness, invariance, and adaptation, ARM methods provide performance gains of 1-4% test accuracy on a number of image classification problems exhibiting domain shift.

Pang Wei Koh*, Shiori Sagawa*, Henrik Marklund, Sang Michael Xie, Marvin Zhang, et al.
WILDS: A Benchmark of in-the-Wild Distribution Shifts.
ICML 2021.

paper / website / code

Distribution shifts -- where the training distribution differs from the test distribution -- can substantially degrade the accuracy of machine learning (ML) systems deployed in the wild. Despite their ubiquity in the real-world deployments, these distribution shifts are under-represented in the datasets widely used in the ML community today. To address this gap, we present WILDS, a curated benchmark of 10 datasets reflecting a diverse range of distribution shifts that naturally arise in real-world applications, such as shifts across hospitals for tumor identification; across camera traps for wildlife monitoring; and across time and location in satellite imaging and poverty mapping. On each dataset, we show that standard training yields substantially lower out-of-distribution than in-distribution performance. This gap remains even with models trained by existing methods for tackling distribution shifts, underscoring the need for new methods for training models that are more robust to the types of distribution shifts that arise in practice. To facilitate method development, we provide an open-source package that automates dataset loading, contains default model architectures and hyperparameters, and standardizes evaluations.

Laura Smith, Nikita Dhawan, Marvin Zhang, Pieter Abbeel, Sergey Levine.
AVID: Learning Multi-Stage Tasks via Pixel-Level Translation of Human Videos.
RSS 2020.

paper / website / blog / talk

Robotic reinforcement learning (RL) holds the promise of enabling robots to learn complex behaviors through experience. However, realizing this promise for long-horizon tasks in the real world requires mechanisms to reduce human burden in terms of defining the task and scaffolding the learning process. In this paper, we study how these challenges can be alleviated with an automated robotic learning framework, in which multi-stage tasks are defined simply by providing videos of a human demonstrator and then learned autonomously by the robot from raw image observations. A central challenge in imitating human videos is the difference in appearance between the human and robot, which typically requires manual correspondence. We instead take an automated approach and perform pixel-level image translation via CycleGAN to convert the human demonstration into a video of a robot, which can then be used to construct a reward function for a model-based RL algorithm. The robot then learns the task one stage at a time, automatically learning how to reset each stage to retry it multiple times without human-provided resets. This makes the learning process largely automatic, from intuitive task specification via a video to automated training with minimal human intervention. We demonstrate that our approach is capable of learning complex tasks, such as operating a coffee machine, directly from raw image observations, requiring only 20 minutes to provide human demonstrations and about 180 minutes of robot interaction.

Michael Janner, Justin Fu, Marvin Zhang, Sergey Levine.
When to Trust Your Model: Model-Based Policy Optimization.
NeurIPS 2019.

paper / website / code / blog / talk

Designing effective model-based reinforcement learning algorithms is difficult because the ease of data generation must be weighed against the bias of model-generated data. In this paper, we study the role of model usage in policy optimization both theoretically and empirically. We first formulate and analyze a model-based reinforcement learning algorithm with a guarantee of monotonic improvement at each step. In practice, this analysis is overly pessimistic and suggests that real off-policy data is always preferable to model-generated on-policy data, but we show that an empirical estimate of model generalization can be incorporated into such analysis to justify model usage. Motivated by this analysis, we then demonstrate that a simple procedure of using short model-generated rollouts branched from real data has the benefits of more complicated model-based algorithms without the usual pitfalls. In particular, this approach surpasses the sample efficiency of prior model-based methods, matches the asymptotic performance of the best model-free algorithms, and scales to horizons that cause other model-based methods to fail entirely.

Marvin Zhang*, Sharad Vikram*, Laura Smith, Pieter Abbeel, Matthew Johnson, Sergey Levine.
SOLAR: Deep Structured Latent Representations for Model-Based Reinforcement Learning.
ICML 2019.

paper / website / code / blog / talk

Model-based reinforcement learning (RL) has proven to be a data efficient approach for learning control tasks but is difficult to utilize in domains with complex observations such as images. In this paper, we present a method for learning representations that are suitable for iterative model-based policy improvement, even when the underlying dynamical system has complex dynamics and image observations, in that these representations are optimized for inferring simple dynamics and cost models given data from the current policy. This enables a model-based RL method based on the linear-quadratic regulator (LQR) to be used for systems with image observations. We evaluate our approach on a range of robotics tasks, including manipulation with a real-world robotic arm directly from images. We find that our method produces substantially better final performance than other model-based RL methods while being significantly more efficient than model-free RL.

Yevgen Chebotar*, Karol Hausman*, Marvin Zhang*, Gaurav Sukhatme, Stefan Schaal, Sergey Levine.
Combining Model-Based and Model-Free Updates for Trajectory-Centric Reinforcement Learning.
ICML 2017.

paper / website / code

Reinforcement learning (RL) algorithms for real-world robotic applications need a data-efficient learning process and the ability to handle complex, unknown dynamical systems. These requirements are handled well by model-based and model-free RL approaches, respectively. In this work, we aim to combine the advantages of these two types of methods in a principled manner. By focusing on time-varying linear-Gaussian policies, we enable a model-based algorithm based on the linear quadratic regulator (LQR) that can be integrated into the model-free framework of path integral policy improvement (PI2). We can further combine our method with guided policy search (GPS) to train arbitrary parameterized policies such as deep neural networks. Our simulation and real-world experiments demonstrate that this method can solve challenging manipulation tasks with comparable or better performance than model-free methods while maintaining the sample efficiency of model-based methods.

Marvin Zhang*, Xinyang Geng*, Jonathan Bruce*, Ken Caluwaerts, Massimo Vespignani, Vytas SunSpiral, Pieter Abbeel, Sergey Levine.
Deep Reinforcement Learning for Tensegrity Robot Locomotion.
ICRA 2017.

paper / website / code

Tensegrity robots, composed of rigid rods connected by elastic cables, have a number of unique properties that make them appealing for use as planetary exploration rovers. However, control of tensegrity robots remains a difficult problem due to their unusual structures and complex dynamics. In this work, we show how locomotion gaits can be learned automatically using a novel extension of mirror descent guided policy search (MDGPS) applied to periodic locomotion movements, and we demonstrate the effectiveness of our approach on tensegrity robot locomotion. We evaluate our method with real-world and simulated experiments on the SUPERball tensegrity robot, showing that the learned policies generalize to changes in system parameters, unreliable sensor measurements, and variation in environmental conditions, including varied terrains and a range of different gravities. Our experiments demonstrate that our method not only learns fast, power-efficient feedback policies for rolling gaits, but that these policies can succeed with only the limited onboard sensing provided by SUPERball's accelerometers. We compare the learned feedback policies to learned open-loop policies and hand-engineered controllers, and demonstrate that the learned policy enables the first continuous, reliable locomotion gait for the real SUPERball robot.

Marvin Zhang, Zoe McCarthy, Chelsea Finn, Sergey Levine, Pieter Abbeel.
Learning Deep Neural Network Policies with Continuous Memory States.
ICRA 2016.


Policy learning for partially observed control tasks requires policies that can remember salient information from past observations. In this paper, we present a method for learning policies with internal memory for high-dimensional, continuous systems, such as robotic manipulators. Our approach consists of augmenting the state and action space of the system with continuous-valued memory states that the policy can read from and write to. Learning general-purpose policies with this type of memory representation directly is difficult, because the policy must automatically figure out the most salient information to memorize at each time step. We show that, by decomposing this policy search problem into a trajectory optimization phase and a supervised learning phase through a method called guided policy search, we can acquire policies with effective memorization and recall strategies. Intuitively, the trajectory optimization phase chooses the values of the memory states that will make it easier for the policy to produce the right action in future states, while the supervised learning phase encourages the policy to use memorization actions to produce those memory states. We evaluate our method on tasks involving continuous control in manipulation and navigation settings, and show that our method can learn complex policies that successfully complete a range of tasks that require memory.